Background and history on animal testing

A large-scale re-investment in human-based not mouse or dog or monkey research aimed at understanding how disruptions of normal human biological functions at the levels of genes, proteins and cell and tissue interactions lead to illness in our species could advance the effective treatment or prevention of many key health-related societal challenges of our time. In most other parts of the world there is currently no such legal imperative, leaving scientists free to use animals even where non-animal approaches are available. Old habits die hard, and globally there is still a lack of knowledge of and expertise in cutting-edge non-animal techniques.

We are leading efforts globally to encourage scientists, companies and policy-makers to transition away from animal use in favour of 21st century methods. Our work brings together experts from around the globe to share knowledge and best practice, improving the quality of research by replacing animals in the laboratory. It is often argued that because animal experiments have been used for centuries, and medical progress has been made in that time, animal experiments must be necessary. But this is missing the point. History is full of examples of flawed or basic practices and ideas that were once considered state-of-the-art, only to be superseded years later by something far more sophisticated and successful.

Those early ideas are part of aviation history, but no-one would seriously argue that they represent the cutting-edge of design or human achievement. So it is with laboratory research. Animal experiments are part of medical history, but history is where they belong.

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So if we want better quality medical research, safer more effective pharmaceuticals and cures to human diseases, we need to turn the page in the history books and embrace the new chapter—21st century science. Independent scientific reviews demonstrate that research using animals correlates very poorly to real human patients.

Animal Testing: The Facts

In fact, the data show that animal studies fail to predict real human outcomes in 50 to This is mainly because other species seldom naturally suffer from the same diseases as found in humans. Animal experiments rely on often uniquely human conditions being artificially induced in non-human species. While on a superficial level they may share similar symptoms, fundamental differences in genetics, physiology and biochemistry can result in wildly different reactions to both the illness and potential treatments.

For some areas of disease research, overreliance on animal models may well have delayed medical progress rather than advanced it. By contrast, many non-animal replacement methods such as cell-based studies, silicon chip biosensors, and computational systems biology models, can provide faster and more human-relevant answers to medical and chemical safety questions that animal experiments cannot match.

British Medical Journal , , Early Greek physician-scientists, such as Aristotle, — BC and Erasistratus, — BC , performed experiments on living animals. Ibn Zuhr Avenzoar , an Arab physician in twelfth century Moorish Spain, introduced animal testing as an experimental method for testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.

History of Animal Testing Essay - Words | Bartleby

In recent years, the practice of using animals for biomedical research has come under severe criticism by animal protection and animal rights groups. Debates on the ethics of animal testing have raged since the seventeenth century. Those against, contend that the benefit to humans does not justify the harm to animals. Many people also believe that animals are inferior to humans and very different from them, hence results from animals cannot be applied to humans. Those in favor of animal testing argue that experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge.

Bernard established animal experimentation as part of the standard scientific method.

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Drug testing using animals became important in the twentieth century. DEG was poisonous to humans, but the company's chief pharmacist and chemist was not aware of this. He simply added raspberry flavoring to the sulfa drug, which he had dissolved in DEG, and the company marketed the product. The preparation led to mass poisoning causing the deaths of more than a hundred people. Freshman Seminar, Per. It is another form of animal abuse.

Historical Timeline of the Animal Rights Movement

The animals are locked in cold, tiny cages in laboratories waiting in fear of what might happen next. The animals are being treated cruelly and being injected with substances that the scientists do not know if it will harm the animals.

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Animals have long sense been a part of human life. The dog for example is thought to have been the first animal to be domesticated by humans, sometime around 13,—10, B.

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It is not known for sure how humans gained the trust of the Canines but in any event they did, and soon found dogs to be reliable companions. Animals have aided us any many ways, from offering protection and companionship. They should be respected and loved for loyalty; however it has been a very common practice. Our assumption is that what we buy in a store is safe to use and is normal.

But do we wonder how the cosmetic industry came to the conclusion about their product to support our assumption?

Animal Testing and Medicine

Soon the use of cosmetics grew throughout their entire population as a way of. How will animal research tell us the outcomes of the human body? How can we live longer and healthier lives with the use of animals? Do animals have a link to the human body that we are able to prove that trying new drugs or new cosmetics will be a benefit for us? I disagree. I believe we test on animals to figure out what are the possible outcomes for humans; however, the use of animals is cruel and unnecessary because they do not have a similar body system as humans do. We use at least a millions. The Facts About Animal Experimentation Animal experimentation is the use of animals in research or projects involving the safety of foods, drugs, or other substances.

It is a part of almost everything we use in our everyday lives.